Skip to content

Baha’i calendar

March 22, 2015

Under construction This is a personal shareable research tool. Please visit the official Baha’i websites for comprehensive information. The Baha’i calendar is a cycle of 19 months and the Baha’i month is a cycle of 19 days. 19 x 19 is 361 days. Ayyám Al Há forms the four or five intercalary days between the last and the first months that fill out the 365 or 366 days of the solar year.

Today is ‘Idál, عدال, Justice, Wednesday in the month of Baha بهاء Splendour glory, light, excellence), in the year 172 BE, in the Vahid Alif meaning A in the Kull-i-Shay?

The Bahá’í week starts on Saturday, and ends on Friday.[22] Like Judaism and Islam, days begin at sunset on the previous solar day and end at sunset of the present solar day. Bahá’í writings indicate that Friday is to be kept as a day of rest.[23][24] The practice of keeping Friday as a day of rest is currently not observed in all countries; for example, in the UK, the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís confirmed it does not currently keep this practice.[25]

 

Arabic Name[2] Arabic Script English Translation[22] Day of the Week[2]
Jalál جلال Glory Saturday
Jamál جمال Beauty Sunday
Kamál كمال Perfection Monday
Fiḍál فضال Grace Tuesday
‘Idál عدال Justice Wednesday
Istijlál استجلال Majesty Thursday
Istiqlál استقلال Independence Friday

 

Baha’i Months

Cycle of nineteen days See Baha’i Feasts

Baha’i Years

Cycle of nineteen months

Baha’i Vahid

Cycle of nineteen years

Baha’i Kull-i-Shay

Cycle of nineteen Vahid

“The Báb has, in His writings revealed in Arabic, divided the years following the date of His Revelation, into cycles of nineteen years each. Each cycle of nineteen years is called Váhid. Nineteen cycles constitute a period called Kull-i-Shay. The numerical value of the word “Váhid” is nineteen. It signifies unity, and is symbolic of the unity of God. The numerical value of the “Kull-i-Shay” is 361, and literally means “all things. The numerical value of the “Kull-i-Shay” is 361, and literally means “all things.” In the table below are given the first 361 years of the Bahá’í Era  (Bolhuis 1999).”

This is a section of Bolhuis’ Chart of the first 361 years (19*19) of the Bahá’í Era

Name Meaning 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 19
1 Alif A 1939 1958 1977 1996 2015 2034 2053 2186
2 B 1940 1959 1978 1997 2016 2035 2054 2187
3 Ab Father 1941 1960 1979 1998 2017 2036 2055 2188
4 Dál D 1942 1961 1980 1999 2018 2037 2056 2189
5 Báb Gate 1943 1962 1981 2000 2019 2038 2057 2190
6 Váv V 1944 1963 1982 2001 2020 2039 2058 2191
7 Abad Eternity 1945 1964 1983 2002 2021 2040 2059 2192
8 Jád Generosity 1946 1965 1984 2003 2022 2041 2060 2193
9 Bahá Splendour 1947 1966 1985 2004 2023 2042 2061 2194
10 Hubb Love 1948 1967 1986 2005 2024 2043 2062 2195
11 Bahháj Delightful 1949 1968 1987 2006 2025 2044 2063 2196
12 Javáb Answer 1950 1969 1988 2007 2026 2045 2064 2197
13 Ahad Single 1951 1970 1989 2008 2027 2046 2065 2198
14 Vahháb Bountiful 1952 1971 1990 2009 2028 2047 2066 2199
15 Vidád Affection 1953 1972 1991 2010 2029 2048 2067 2200
16 Badi’ Beginning 1954 1973 1992 2011 2030 2049 2068 2201
17 Bahí Luminous 1955 1974 1993 2012 2031 2050 2069 2202
18 Abhá Most Luminous 1956 1975 1994 2013 2032 2051 2070 2203
19 Váhid Unity 1957 1976 1995 2014 2033 2052 2071 2204

References

Bolhuis, Arjen. 1999. The First Kull-i-Shay’ of the Bahá’í Era

Advertisements

The Baha’i Fast

February 26, 2015

Prayer for the Fast

Praise be to Thee, O Lord my God! I beseech Thee by this Revelation whereby darkness hath been turned into light, through which the Frequented Fane hath been built, and the Written Tablet revealed, and the Outspread Roll uncovered, to send down upon me and upon them who are in my company that which will enable us to soar into the heavens of Thy transcendent glory, and will wash us from the stain of such doubts as have hindered the suspicious from entering into the tabernacle of Thy unity.

I am the one, O my Lord, who hath held fast the cord of Thy loving-kindness, and clung to the hem of Thy mercy and favors. Do Thou ordain for me and for my loved ones the good of this world and of the world to come. Supply them, then, with the Hidden Gift Thou didst ordain for the choicest among Thy creatures.

These are, O my Lord, the days in which Thou hast bidden Thy servants to observe the fast. Blessed is he that observeth the fast wholly for Thy sake and with absolute detachment from all things except Thee. Assist me and assist them, O my Lord, to obey Thee and to keep Thy precepts. Thou, verily, hast power to do what Thou choosest.

There is no God but Thee, the All-Knowing, the All-Wise. All praise be to God, the Lord of all worlds. Baha’u’llah

– VII –Bahá’í Prayers: A Selection of Prayers Revealed by Bahá’u’lláh, the Báb, and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
US Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1991 edition Pages: 268

This is, O my God, the first of the days on which Thou hast bidden Thy loved ones to observe the Fast. I ask of Thee by Thy Self and by him who hath fasted out of love for Thee and for Thy good-pleasure—and not out of self and desire, nor out of fear of Thy wrath—and by Thy most excellent names and august attributes, to purify Thy servants from the love of aught except Thee and to draw them nigh unto the Dawning-Place of the lights of Thy countenance and the Seat of the throne of Thy oneness. Illumine their hearts, O my God, with the light of Thy knowledge and brighten their faces with the rays of the Daystar that shineth from the horizon of Thy Will. Potent art Thou to do what pleaseth Thee. No God is there but Thee, the All-Glorious, Whose help is implored by all men.

Assist them, O my God, to render Thee victorious and to exalt Thy Word. Suffer them, then, to become as hands of Thy Cause amongst Thy servants, and make them to be revealers of Thy religion and Thy signs amongst mankind, in such wise that the whole world may be filled with Thy remembrance and praise and with Thy proofs and evidences. Thou art, verily, the All-Bounteous, the Most Exalted, the Powerful, the Mighty, and the Merciful.

See also

This YouTube video entitled “Baha’i Ayyam-i-Ha Prayer – Intercalary Days – My God, my Fire and my Light!” was uploaded by
ShadenaChi ShadenaChi on 13 Feb 2012.

 

References

Alberta Bahá’í History Project: Shareable Resources

February 23, 2015

References, Timeline

This post is a shareable personal research and learning tool to collect resources related to the history of the Baha’is of Alberta. All of the resources below are already available online.

I am using the Wikipedia model of inline edit, inline citation – one entry, at least one reference. (The MA thesis, PhD dissertation, article, book, interview, video, blog with author, title, date, publisher and accessdate, isbn or doi if available, number of pages in document, page number, etc) If you have sentence size entries you feel should be here, please leave a message with as much of the reference data as possible. If you don’t have the reference, feel welcome to add the entry. I will also put this in My G Drive for those who use that and you can edit directly.

This is one of my 2017 – 2019 personal research projects and it is a small part of the ongoing Alberta-wide project on the same topic. We are blessed to live in an age where we can read the archives material from the comfort of our homes, realizing now in the 2000s just how much these early friends from Alberta accomplished.

A chronology of selected events related to the history of the Baha’is of Alberta

  • 1893-09-11 to 1893-09-27 The World Parliament of Religions, the largest of the congresses held in conjunction with the World Columbian Exposition, was the first formal formal inter-religious dialogue worldwide of Eastern and Western spiritual traditions. The conference included new religious movements of the time, such as Spiritualism and Christian Science. The latter was represented by its founder Mary Baker Eddy. Rev. Henry Jessup addressing the World Parliament of Religions was the first to mention the Bahá’í Faith in the United States (it had previously been known in Europe. A number of Canadians who attended sessions at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago, Illinois in 1893 became Bahá’ís (van den Hoonaard ). Since then Bahá’ís have become active participants in the World Parliament of Religions.
  • 23 September 1893 Baha’u’llah’s recent death in Akká was announced to the World Parliament of Religions, held in Chicago, in connection with the World’s Columbian Exposition, 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the New World in 1492, Rev. George A. Ford of Syria read a paper written by Rev. Henry H. Jessup, D.D., Director of Presbyterian Missionary Operations in North Syria to the audience. In his paper Reverend Jessup called Baha’u’llah “a famous Persian Sage” and “the Bábí Saint” “the Glory of God” had died recently in Akká. Jessup described how Professor Edward Granville Browne of Cambridge University had visited and interviewed Baha’u’llah in Bahji just outside the fortress of Akka on the Syrian coast in April 1890 and that during those four interviews Baha’u’llah had expressed “sentiments so noble, so Christ-like” that the author of the paper, in his “closing words,” wished to share them with his audience. Jessup described Baha’u’llah’s as head of a group of Persians who “who accept the New Testament as the word of God, and Christ as the deliverer of man; who regard all natives as one, and all men as brothers.” Jessop closed his paper with these words,(Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, page 256; (JessupHenry H., Ed. 1894. Neely, F. Tennyson Neely. 1894. “The Religious Mission of the English-Speaking Nations.” Neely’s History of the Parliament of Religions and Religious Congresses of the World’s Columbian Exposition. Chicago. pages 637-641.) “That all nations should become one in faith, and all men as brothers; that the bonds of affection and unity between the sons of men should be strengthened; that diversity of religion should, and differences of race, be annulled; what harm is there in this? Yet so it shall be. These fruitless strifes, these ruinous wars shall pass away, and the “most great peace” shall come. Do not you in Europe need this also? Let not a man glory in this, that he loves his country; let him rather glory in this that he loves his kind.”|Baha’ullah
  • 7 October 1897 Esther Rennels was one of several Canadians who became Baha’is in Chicago in the years following presentation on the Baha’i Faith at The Congress of Living Religions,  in Chicago on 23 September 1893. Other Canadians who became Baha’is in Chicago in the same year are Paul K. Dealy, William Henry Jackson (Honoré Joseph Jaxon) 1861-1952, James Oakshette, Aimee Montfort and James Carmichael (van den Hoonaard 2010:306).
  • 1913 “Esther R. Rennels is first recorded Baha’i in Alberta (Edmonton) (van den Hoonaard 2010:306).”  (Pemberton-Pigott 1992:23)
  • 1911-1917 Esther Rennels is the first Alberta Bahá’í. She is reported to have lived in Edmonton from 1911-1917 (Edmonton Bahá’í Community 2012).
  • 1925 The National Spiritual Assemblies (NSA) of the United States of America, Canada and the Philippines were established. The first NSAs in the world were formed in 1923 in the British Isles, Germany and India. The fourth was formed in Egypt in 1924.
  • 1941 Four others joined the Faith in Edmonton in 1942  (Edmonton Bahá’í Community 2012).”
  • 1941 Long-time Alberta resident Mabel Pine moved to Edmonton from Vermilion (van den Hoonaard 2010:217, Edmonton Bahá’í Community 2012)
  • 1940 Mary E. Fry moved to Edmonton from Vancouver  (van den Hoonaard 2010:217).
  • 1940 “First Baha’i group in Edmonton, 1942. It was not uncommon to find women among the first believers or “pioneers.” Although there was a Baha’i in Edmonton in 1911, apparently the Baha’i community has been in continuous existence only since 1940(van den Hoonaard 2010:152).” The Vancouver Baha’i Archives has a photo of the First Baha’i group in Edmonton in 1942 with Anne McGee, Lyda Martland, Milwyn Davies, Kay Rimell, Anita Ioas (later Chapman). This photo is Plate 30 in (van den Hoonaard 2010:152).”
  • September 1942 Ina Trimble, a widow, was the first Edmonton resident to become a Bahá’í (Edmonton Bahá’í Community 2012).” Shortly after in the same year, four people from Edmonton became Baha’is (van den Hoonaard 2010:217).
  • 1942 Muriel Warnicker moved to Edmonton from Vancouver and Marcia Atwater moved to Edmonton from the United States  (van den Hoonaard 2010:217). There were only a few isolated Baha’is living in Alberta. (Pemberton-Pigott 1992:8)
  • April 1943 The Edmonton Baha’i Community, composed entirely of women, formed a Spiritual Assembly. It was the ninth LSA in Canada (van den Hoonaard 2010:217).” “Their two goals were to gain male Baha’is, and increase membership from ethnic communities, longing to be “a truly international group”. Towards this end, they organized a Race Unity meeting on November 12, 1943 with Muslims, Jews, Ukrainians and one Chinese in attendance (Edmonton Bahá’í Community 2012).”
  • 12 November 1943 The Edmonton Baha’i community organized a Race Unity meeting with Muslims, Jews, Ukrainians and one Chinese in attendance (Edmonton Bahá’í Community 2012).”
  • 1946 The first male Bahá’í in Edmonton, Roland McGee, arrived with his wife Anne, in 1946 (Edmonton Bahá’í Community 2012).
  • 1940s The Baha’i group in Edmonton made contact with “liberal Christians, Theosophists, and others (Pemberton-Pigott 1988:3) cited in (van den Hoonaard 2010:217).”
  • October 1947 Noel Wuttuneee of Calgary, Alberta, first Native Canadian to enroll as a Baha’i in Canada. (Photo in the Vancouver Baha’i Archives)(van den Hoonaard 2010:153).” ” There is a photo of Noel Wuttunee with his wife(more #792). Melba Loft became a Baha’i on July 18, 1947 while she was living in Michigan. So she was the first Canadian Indian to become a Baha’i. Noel in October 1947 was the first Canadian Indian to become a Baha’i in Canada (Verge, Pat. 5 March 2015.” First Native Canadian Baha’i.” email correspondence Pat Verge in response to Joan Young. )
  • 1948 Arthur Irwin, Seigfried Schopflocher, Gwen Inwood, Milli Rina Gordon, Eddie Elliot, Adline Lohse, Bert Rakovsky, Amine De Mille, Rene Roy were on the LSA of Montreal (van den Hoonaard 2010:153).”
  • 1951 Baha’i Summer Conference in Banff.(more)
  • 1956 Ruth Eyford became a Baha’i (“Obituaries from the Bahá’í World (new series) 1992-2005).
  • 1953 Shoghi Effendi launches the Ten Year Crusade.
  • October 1953 John Robarts (1901 – 1991) and Audrey Robarts, who had become Bahá’ís in 1937 in Toronto, pioneered to Bechuanaland (Botswana). (Bahá’í Community of Canada. “John Robarts.” Baha’i Historical Figures.) “John was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly from 1948–53. In 1953 they became Knights of Bahá’u’lláh when they pioneered to Bechuanaland. In 1957 John Robarts was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God.”(14 May 1954. Messages to Canada) His inspirational words, often during conversations with individual Alberta Baha’is, are mentioned in their biographies. He was “a life insurance executive in Toronto who actively promoted the Baha’i teaching work. His later achievements across Canada and in Africa earned him the title “Hand of the Cause of God” from Shoghi Effendi.” (van den Hoonaard 2010:151).”
  • 1953 Joan and Ted Anderson settled in the Yukon  (Echevarria 2008:57).
  • 1954 Western Canada Conference, Banff.
  • 1957-1963 Ministry of the Custodians: An Account of the Stewardship of the Hands of the Cause 1957-1963, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Account of the stewardship of the Hands of the Cause of God from 1957-63, from the passing of Shoghi Effendi to the election of the House.
  • 1960 Arthur Bonshaw Irwin (born 6 June 1915 – died 1994) and Lily-Ann Irwin of Calgary, Alberta were the first to take the Baha’i teachings to the Peigan Reserve (Canadian Baha’i News Augut 1961:10). “Arthur Irwin becane a Baha’i in 1947 and was a very active Baha’i teacher to the native peoples of Canada, Alaska, and the Caribbean. He and his wife, Lily Ann, established the first Native Indian Friendship Center in Calgary, Alberta… He was honored by the Blackfoot, Peigan, Blood, and Morely tribes in Alberta for his honesty and integrity. A geologist with a doctorate in the field, Irwin worked on Indian reserves in Canada ensuring that fair market value was paid for leases on natural resources (Baha’i World. 1994. “Arthur Bonshaw Irwin.” Baha’i World. 1994. Volume XXIII).”
  • 1 July 1960 Ben Whitecow and Louise Many Guns were married in the first Baha’i marriage legally recognized in Canada in a Baha’i service by the Spiritual Assembly of Calgary, Alberta. The Canadian Baha’i News article noted the significance that it was a First Nations couple who had this honour in this unique event. “Thirty people attended from Edmonton, Lethbridge, Regina, Peigan Indian Reserve, and Calgary. This event was unique in that it was the first legally recognized Baha’i marriage in Canada. It is significant that an Indian couple should have this honour (Canadian Baha’i News 1961).”
  • 21 May 1960 ‘Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyuh Khanum visited the Peigan First Nations during her tour of Canada at the home of Councillor Samson Knowlton. Canadian Baha’i News 1961:2).  Ruhiyyuh Khanum was in North America from May 4 to June 5. She visited Canada from May 16 to June 2, 1960.
  • Ridvan 1961 The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Peigan Indian Reserve was formed with Louise Whitecrow, Charles Strike-With-A-Gun, Rose Knowlton, Sam Yellow Face, ben Whitecrow, Joyce McGuffie, Dale Olivier, Guy Yellow Wings and Chief Samson Knowlton (Canadian Baha’i News July 1961). A photo of the nine members was published in Canadian Baha’i News July 1961. page 9.
  • 1961 Chief Samson Knowlton, then-chairman of the first Peigan Reserve Baha’i Assembly, and an elected member of the Band Council for the Peigan Band of the Blackfoot Confederacy along with John Hellson, originally from Cornwall, England were part of a teaching team that visited many Reserves. Over sixty First Nations became Baha’is in 1960-1962. The team carried letters of introduction to the chiefs of all the Six Nations Reserves in Ontario and Quebec and were welcomed with a special ceremony on some of the Reserves. Their itinerary included the following reserves: the Nanaimo Reserve in Nanaimo, B.C., the Squamish Reserve in Capilano, BC, the Mohawk Reserve in Ohsweken in Ontario, the Chippewa Reserve in Kettle Point, Ontario, the Mississauga Reserve in Curve Lake, the Mohawk Reserve in Caughnawaga, Quebec.” The teaching team gave copies of the small prayer book, Communion with God, which has “meant much to the new Indian Baha’is on the Reserves in Saskatchewan and Alberta (Canadian Baha’i News July 1961).”
  • May 1961 Hasan M. Balyuzi (Hasan Muvaqqar Balyuzi) (1908-1980) visited Canada where, in “addition to meeting the friends, he visited a number of Indian Reserves, including Indians of Ontario, the Poorman Reserve in Saskatchewan where he was honoured by a pow-wow, the Muscowpetung Reserve, the Peigan Reserve in Alberta, and Indians of British Columbia. His talks were ‘simple and direct’, appealing ‘to the hearts of the many who came to hear him’. (ibid. no. 366, p. 9) Later he described these meetings as ‘very wonderful’, commending to British Bahá’ís the initiative of individuals upon whom ‘so much depends’, and expressing his confidence in the rapid acceptance of the Faith by Indians.” (In Memoriam: Hasan M. Balyuzi” Bahá’í World, Volume 18 (1979-1983), pages 610-825. Haifa, Israel: Baha’i World Centre, 1986. page 647; Canadian Baha’i News. September 1961. “International News Brief.” page 9.).
  • October 1961 Edmund Many Bears (born 1906- died 14 March 1968) Siksika Blackfoot Nation declared as a Baha’i. “He was instrumental in forming the Baha’i Local Spiritual Assembly of the Blackfoot Reserve in 1962. He served on Tribal Council and was a member of the Brave Dog Society.” (Native Baha’i) (“In Memoriam: Edmund Many Bears.” Baha’i World Volume XIV 1963-1968 page 357-58.)
  • 1962 “Jean Many Bears (born 1910 – died 1968) Jean and her husband Edmund were “instrument in forming the Spiritual Assembly of the Blackfoot Reserve (Native Baha’i).” “In Memoriam: Jean Many Bears.” Baha’i World. Volume XIV 1963-1968 page 357-58.
  • 1962 The Western Canada Baha’i School was held at the Banff School of Fine Arts from August 12 – 19. It cost a dollar a day to register and room and meals cost $5.00 to $7.00 per day. Mrs. Betty Putters in Sherwood Park was in charge of registration. (May 1962. Summer Schools. U. S. Supplement. Baha’i News)
  • 1963 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age.
  • 197?s???  “Bijan Asdaghi was one of the first Persian Baha’is to immigrate to Canada prior to the Iranian revolution (Edmonton Bahá’í Community 2012). “
  • 1975 The Association for Bahá’í Studies was founded in Canada (Association for Bahá’í Studies).  Donna Seyed Mahmoud (nee Jensen), originally from British Columbia, where she became a Baha’i as a youth, is a life member of the Association for Baha’i Studies. She attended the very first ABS conference held in the 1970s. (Alberta Baha’i Council 2015 “Mohsen and Donna Seyed Mahmoud biography”).
  • 1976 Earl “Black Crow” Healy (born 1937 on the Blood (Kainai) Reserve – died 21 November 2006 (CBNS 2006, Verge nd). He was a “champion pow-wow dancer, respected role-model for youth, and eager promoter of the Bahá’í Faith CBNS 2006).”
  • October 1976 Angus Cowan was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors where he served until 1986. Angus introduced the Faith to Dorothy Francis who became a Baha’i in 1960.
  • 1979 There was intensified persecution of Baha’is in Iran in the wake of the 1979 Islamic Revolution. A significant number of Iranian Baha’is arrived in Canada (Horton 2013:70)
  • 1982 December Native elders and community leaders met at Kainai First Nations.
  • May 1983 “Mohsen Seyed Mahmoud arrived in Lethbridge, Alberta — his original assigned city – and where he has resided every since.”(Alberta Baha’i Council 2015 “Mohsen and Donna Seyed Mahmoud biography”).
  • 1980sSee also this Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum visited Baha’is from the Piegan Reserve, Alberta, Canada, circa 1980s.
  • 1992 “The Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Edmonton purchased the Orange Lodge on 94 Street and 111 Avenue. The site was chosen because of its capacity to hold children’s spiritual education classes, its proximity to the First Nations residents, accessibility, and furnishings, including dishes and chairs (Edmonton Bahá’í Community 2012). “
  • 1992 There were 3000 Baha’is in 170 locations in Alberta with First Nations composingone third of the Baha’s membership in Alberta, c. 2000 people. But by 1992 there was little contact between native and non-native Baha’is. Pemberton-Pigott argued this was partially because the reserve system prevented non-native Baha’is from pioneering to reserves which created a “cultural and administrative gap” between native and non-native Baha’is (Pemberton-Pigott 1992:8).
  • 1994 Four-Year Plan 1994-1999: Messages to the Bahá’ís of the World,
  • 2000 One-Year Plan, 2000: Introductory Letter
  • 29 April – 1 May 2005 Donna M.Stirling-Zoller was a delegate to Canada’s 57th Bahai National Convention held in Montreal .
  • 24 May 2007 The Pincher Creek Echo reported that Allison Healy, Dale Lillico and Donna Mahmoud were the elected delegates from southern Alberta who voted for the Baha’i Faith national governing body of their faith, the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahai’s of Canada.Delegates from southern Alberta attend National Convention Pincher Creek Echo.
  • 1995-2008 Redwan Moqbel was recruited to the “Department of Medicine, University of Alberta as a Professor in 1995, he served as the Director of the Pulmonary Research Group.” There he received such prestigious awards as Alberta Heritage Medical Senior Scholar, Heritage Scientist and Heritage Senior Investigator. In 2008, Redwan became Professor and Head of the Department of Immunology at the University of Manitoba, and Professor Emeritus at the University of Alberta. He was well recognized for his mentorship of young biomedical scientists, whom he encouraged to adopt “a noble goal.”
  • 2006-2011 Five Year Plan
  • 2012 There were 400 Baha’is in the Edmonton Baha’i community representing “a wide variety of races, cultures and social classes (Edmonton Bahá’í Community 2012). “
  • 2013 Redwan Moqbel  died 9 October 2013 in Winnipeg (Winnipeg Free Press 2013).
  • 1 April 2014. Allison Healy, a residential school survivor and member of the Baha’i community of the Kainai First Nation, Alberta, spoke regarding the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s final national event in Edmonton, “The truths have been told, we all have learned about the horrible truths; now we really have to move forward to reconciliation and act.” (CBNS. 2014. “Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s final National Event concludes in Edmonton.” Canadian Bahá’í News Service. Edmonton, Alberta).

References

    • Pemberton-Pigott, Andrew, 1954-. (1992) “The Bahá’í Faith in Alberta, 1942-1992 : the ethic of dispersion. ”  Thesis (M.A.) University of Alberta (Edmonton).
    • van den Hoonaard, Will C. 30 October 2010. “Appendix D: Chronology of Important Canadian Baha’i Dates.” The Origins of the Bahá’í Community of Canada, 1898-1948Wilfrid Laurier University Press. 368 pages. 
      • “Appendix D: Chronology of Important Canadian Baha’i Dates.” page 306
      • Brookes, Beth. 1984. “Letter from Beth Brookes, Edmonton, AB to Mollie Macpherson, Winnipeg, MB, 9 September 1984 (copy in possession of the author).
      • Davies, Milwyn Adams. 1949. “Brief History of the Edmonton Baha’i Community.” (mimeographed, 4 pp.; copy in possession of W. C. van den Hoonaard).
      • Pemberton-Pigott, Andrew. 1988. “The Formation of the First Baha’i Local Spiritual Assembly in Edmonton, April 1943.” Unpublished Honours Paper, University of Alberta. Edmonton. Andrew Pemberton-Pigott completed his M.A. on the “Bahai Faith in Alberta from 1942 to 1992.” He is now working on his Ph.D. at the University of Alberta on geology in Alberta. He teaches the history of science and comparative religion in the Faculty of Extension at the University of Alberta.”
    • Verge, Patricia. 1 January 1999. Angus From the Heart. Springtime Publishing. ISBN-10: 0968589308. 352 pages.
    • Verge, Pat. 2000. “Honouring Blood and Baha’i Traditions: Allison and Earl Healy….Legacy)
    • Verge, Pat. 2000. “Honouring Blood and Baha’i Traditions: Allison and Earl Healy….Alberta Online Encyclopedia)
    • Verge, Pat. “Honouring Blood and Baha’i Traditions: Allison and Earl Healy….)
    • Verge, Pat. 5 March 2015.” First Native Canadian Baha’i.” email correspondence in response to a question by Joan Young.
    • The Bahá’í Faith: 1844–1963 Information Statistical and Comparative, Including the Achievements of the Ten Year International Bahá’í Teaching & Consolidation Plan 1953–1963, Compiled by Hands of the Cause Residing in the Holy Land, pages 22 and 46.

Official Baha’i Websites

Newspapers

Facebook pages

YouTube

Amelia Collins

February 11, 2015

Timeline

Note: At this stage, this is a draft which is mostly compiled from Richard Francis’ 1993/2003 article Amelia Collins: The Fulfilled Hope of ‘Abdu’l-Baha. It is my intention to continue to add details, links and references.

7 June 1873 Amelia Mary-Margaret “Milly” Engelder Collins was born Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, USA to “Catherine Groff and Conrad Engelder, a German emigrant and Lutheran clergyman. She was the seventh child of a family of nine sons and five daughters.” She was brought up in a “strict Lutheran household (Francis 1993/2003).”

She married “a mining engineer named Thomas H. Collins and lived in Calumet, Michigan and later Bisbee Arizona. Thomas met great success in Bisbee by developing the porphyry copper mining operations that eventually become the Phelps-Dodge Mining Company (Francis 1993/2003).”

1920s They moved to California (Francis 1993/2003).

1919? Millie became a Bahá’í.? in California.

1923 Millie “made her first pilgrimage to Haifa in early 1923 when she was fifty years old. Thomas Collins accompanied her and was shown great kindness by Shoghi Effendi (1897 – 1957) (Francis 1993/2003).”

1924 Millie was the first Baha’i to visit Iceland. She arrived there on a cruise ship. During that trip she met Hólmfríður Árnadóttir, who became the first Icelandic Bahá’í (UHJ 1976:205).(Francis 1993/2003). Later in 1935 Martha Root visited the country for a month and with the help of Árnadóttir proclaimed the religion in the press, during lectures, and on the radio (Bahá’í News 1935: 1; Wikipedia).

1924 Millie was “elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada and was re-elected every year until 1933 (Francis 1993/2003).”

1926 Millie and Thomas Collins purchased property on Mount Carmel (Francis 1993/2003).

1934 Millie and Thomas Collins provided funding at Davison, Michigan, for the first publication of Bahá’i literature in Amharic (Francis 1993/2003).

1936 Millie and Thomas Collins developed and built the extension of the Geyserville School properties in northern California (Francis 1993/2003).

1937 Thomas Collins died from a heart attack. Although he never became a Baha’i, he “supported Millie’s Bahá’i activities. These included the financial contributions that maintained the solvency of the Geyserville School (Francis 1993/2003).”

1937 Millie was 64. “After arranging her substantial estate in order, one that would eventually establish the institutions of the Bahá’i World Center, Millie later that same year, made her second pilgrimage to the Holy Land. The tie between the Guardian and she became significantly closer. This included a friendship with the Guardian’s wife, Ruhíyyih Khánum. In a letter to her, shortly after this pilgrimage, the Guardian wrote:

“The days you spent under the shadow of the Holy Shrines will long be remembered with joy and gratitude. I have during these days increasingly appreciated and admired the profound sense of devotion, the passionate fervor, the intense love and attachment that animates you in the service of the Holy Cause. For such noble qualities I feel thankful, and I am certain that the fruits they will yield will be equally outstanding and memorable. Rest assured and be happy.”

1937 The Guardian “sent a sacred gift to the American Bahá’i Community through Millie. This was the lock of Baha’u’llah’s hair that had been preserved by the Greatest Holy Leaf, to be placed beneath the dome of the American Bahá’i Temple. She presented the gift during the 1938 National Bahá’i Convention mounted in a silver frame, the first of many sacred gifts from the guardian to become part of the National Bahá’i Archives (Francis 1993/2003).”

1938 Millie was re-elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada and “served until the Guardian called her to service at the Bahá’i World Center (Francis 1993/2003).”

1939 Millie “supported the publication of the first translation of Baha’i literature in Icelandic: Esslemont’s Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era (Francis 1993/2003).”

1939 Millie made the “first contribution to the Bahíyyih Khánum Fund toward the erection of the Mother Temple of America” and contributed to the Persian Temple Fund (Francis 1993/2003).”

1944 Millie “sent the Guardian a generous contribution that covered most of the cost of constructing the superstructure for the Shrine of the Báb on Mount Carmel (Francis 1993/2003).”

1945 Millie was 72. “In 1945, Millie was invited by Miss Arnadottir to come to Iceland. In response, the Guardian replied through his secretary that instead of going to Iceland where her health might be compromised, that she should go to America.

“As he cabled you, he feels your presence in America more important than Iceland at this time… The Small Assemblies in America are badly in need of Bahá’i’ education…”

1940s “Millie was the first to initiate the teaching of the American Indians in accordance to ‘Abdú’l-Bahá’s Tablets of the Divine Plan. In 1948, the first Indian Bahá’i Assembly on the American continent was formed on the Omaha Indian Reservation at Macy, Nebraska (Francis 1993/2003).”

1942 Millie was 69. Shoghi Effendi sent Millie to design and erect “the memorial to May Maxwell, Ruhíyyih Khánum’s mother in Buenos Aires. She even located a block of Carrara marble with the right characteristics for the project. Travel arrangements were nearly impossible because of the wartime conditions (Francis 1993/2003).”

1946 Millie was 73. Millie traveled to “Latin America to attend conferences and teaching work (Francis 1993/2003).”

1947? “Shoghi Effendi proclaimed that Millie Collins has been made his ninth Hand of the Cause of God. This singled her out as one who was uniquely loved and privileged by the Guardian. Millie Collins traveled several times to Europe after the close of World War II (Francis 1993/2003).”

1949 Millie was 76. Millie traveled to “Latin America to attend conferences and teaching work (Francis 1993/2003).”

1951

On 24 December 1951 Shoghi Effendi cabled the Bahá’ís of the world, announcing the appointment of the first contingent of the Hands of the Cause. He took the “long inevitably deferred step in conformity with provisions of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s Testament” of naming twelve individuals Hands of the Cause, “equally allocated Holy Land [i.e., the Bahá’í World Center], Asiatic, American, European continents.” Millie was one of the first to be appointed a Hand of the Cause. She was also appointed vice-president of the International Bahá’í Council by Shoghi Effendi.

1951 Millie was 78. Millie “traveled at the request of Shoghi Effendi to Turkey and Egypt. While in Cairo, despite becoming so ill that she could hardly stand, she gave an address to a large public meeting at the Hazíratu’l-Quds. Her role seemed to be from this time on, to ignore illness and her increasingly crippling arthritis, going forward, putting her whole trust in God (Francis 1993/2003).”

1951 “Shoghi Effendi appointed Millie Collins in January 1951 as the vice -president of the International Bahá’i Council and she went to live in Haifa. This work continued for the rest of her life (Francis 1993/2003).”

“The Guardian, in a cable to the Bahá’í world dated January 9, 1951, had proclaimed his “weighty epoch-making decision” to form the first International Bahá’í Council, the “forerunner” of the “supreme administrative institution”‘ of the Faith, which was destined to emerge in the fullness of time, and he characterized this “historic decision” as “Marking most significant milestone evolution Administrative Order Faith Bahá’u’lláh course last thirty years.” Those thirty years were his own ministry since the passing of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in 1921. This first International Bahá’í Council was not elected but selected by Shoghi Effendi himself from individual believers of long standing and proven dedication to the service of the Cause. Less than one year later, on December 24, 1951, he announced the names of the first contingent of Hands. In view of the clear distinction in the Teachings between the elected Universal House of Justice and the appointed Hands of the Cause, it seems to me portentous that the first membership of the International Bahá’í Council included three people soon to be nominated Hands, and that, at the time of the beloved Guardian’s passing, five of its officers, so designated by him, namely, myself as liaison between it and him, Mason Remey, its President, Amelia Collins, its Vice-President, Leroy Ioas its Secretary General, and Ugo Giachery, its Member at Large-who lived in Italy and functioned as a European Hand, but frequently visited Haifa at Shoghi Effendi’s request-were all Hands of the Cause. In addition to being members of the International Bahá’í Council, these Hands, resident and serving at the World Centre, constituted a separate body, specified by Shoghi Effendi to act as liaison between him and the other Hands throughout the world, conveying their messages to him and his to them, thus giving us, during his own lifetime, a dual function as Hands directly serving under him and officers of the International Bahá’í Council. I believe that at that particularly dangerous juncture in Bahá’í history this duality was providential and greatly reinforced the authority and power of the Custodians when faced by the crisis of his sudden passing. When that terrible blow fell upon the Bahá’í world, these five Hands had been constantly serving under his personal instructions for almost six years.”(Custodians)

1953 MIllie was 80. Millie and Ruhíyyih Khánum represented the Guardian at the All-American Conference in Chicago as part of the ten-year World Crusade (Francis 1993/2003).”

1953 “Shoghi Effendi acknowledged in his message to the twelve Annual Conventions, Millie’s “munificent donation” toward the purchase of many Hazíratu’l-Quds and endowments on five continents (Francis 1993/2003).”

c. 1954 or 1956 Valera and John Allen, described their visit in December in the 1950s as Ruhiyyih Khanum prepared for a dinner party with over twenty people in honour of Josephine Baker. Guests included the “American Consul and his wife, the Italian Consul and his wife and various other dignitaries of Haifa with Josephine Baker and her entourage… All in all it was a very nice party and Miss Baker was very impressed, I am sure, and the next day when she visited the Shrine and Gardens with Ruhiyyih Khanum she expressed her appreciation and a desire to know more about the Faith. Our only regret was to have miss one evening with the beloved Guardian as he does not attend such functions.”

The next weekend Amelia Collins, Ruhiyyih Khanum, “Leroy Ioas and Ugo Giachery, and three other members of the International Council, Jessie and Ethel Revel and Dr. Lotfullah Hakim, Iraj Hakim, Angeline Giachery, Mr. and Mrs. Esfandiar Bakhtiari, Persian friends from Pakistan (He is a member of the NSA of Burma-Pakistan- India), Shadah” … and the Allens went to Bahji for the week end. “Ruhiyyih Khanum and Millie Collins left to go back to Haifa.”

1957 In his last Convention message Shoghi Effendi acknowledged Millie’s donations for the “building of the Mother Temples in Europe, Australia and Africa. The Guardian named the main gate to the shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in her honor (Francis 1993/2003).”

1957 Millie was 84. “The beloved Guardian passed away in November, 1957. Millie was planing to meet him in Haifa, and upon her arrival there, heard the calamitous news of his passing that put the entire Baha’i world into shock. Millie immediately departed for London to join Ruhíyyih Khánum in her time of need. Millie became like a mother to her and gave spiritual support during the proceeding four dark years (Francis 1993/2003).”

Immediately after the funeral the five Hands of the Cause, Ruhiyyih Khanum, Mr. Remey, Mrs. Collins, Dr. Giachery, and Mr. Ioas opened the Shoghi Effendi’s Will.(Custodians).

“One of our most pressing worries concerned the heavy financial obligations left us in the plans of Shoghi Effendi regarding not only the construction of Bahá’í Temples but other properties, and the monetary support we had to give to the new National Bahá’í Assemblies in developing countries. The national Bahá’í bodies in a position to provide any substantial aid at that period were those of Iran and America (Custodians).”

25 November 1957 The Hands of the Cause nominated and appointed from our own number to act on our behalf as the Custodians of the Bahá’í World Faith
Ruhiyyih Rabbani, Charles Mason Remey, Amelia E. Collins, Leroy C. Ioas, Hasan Balyuzi, ‘Ali-Akbar Furutan, Jalal Khazeh, Paul E. Haney and Adelbert Muhlschlegel (Custodians).

1960

“The main income of the Hands was from the contributions of the Persian Bahá’í community, which was the oldest and at that time the most affluent Bahá’í community in the world. This monetary aid we estimated at about $100,000 a year. In June 1960, as we considered our financial position, we felt obliged to vote this entire sum for Temple construction, the expenses of the Institution of the Hands and support to the National Assemblies, nearly all of which at that period were not self-supporting and received most of their annual budget from the Hands at the World Centre (Custodians).”
“The munificent financial contributions of our fellow-Hand and Custodian Amelia Collins were of great assistance to the Hands; her outstanding generosity afforded infinite comfort to our heavily-burdened minds and hearts as we faced the ever-increasing financial needs of the Faith. The following minute from our Conclave meeting in 1959 conveys only one instance of her magnanimous spirit: “Milly offered to provide one-third entire sum to be given by Hands Holy Land to Hands in the continents.”
The Hands living at the World Centre practised rigid economy; as the pilgrimage had been suspended for a nine-month period of mourning throughout the Bahá’í world after the passing of Shoghi Effendi our Eastern and Western Pilgrim Houses were available and the newly-chosen Custodians and their wives resided in them for some time, only moving to more suitable accommodation when the pilgrimage was reopened (Custodians).”

From 1957 to 1963, (Custodians)

“When the appointed and much-loved Head of our Faith suddenly passed away on November 4, 1957 in London, we were twenty-seven in number, five women and twenty-two men, drawn from all continents of the globe, some of whom had never even met the Guardian personally, indeed, eight of us had only been appointed to the rank of Hand by Shoghi Effendi a few weeks prior to his death. Those of us of longer standing felt great compassion for this last contingent of our peers, who, in addition to the shock each one of us had experienced when we were elevated to this high position, were now faced with the additional shock of the realization that Shoghi Effendi was no longer there to guide them personally, that this door was closed forever. The eldest among us, Corinne True, one of the early group of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s disciples in America, was already 96; the youngest, Enoch Olinga, a native of Uganda, only 31; listing us according to our diminishing ages, covering sixty-five years of difference, we were, after Corinne True, Clara Dunn in Australia-herself 88, Amelia Collins [who was 84-years-old] at the World Centre, Tarazu’llah Samandari, in Persia, Mason Remey at the World Centre, Agnes Alexander in Japan, Musa Banani; in Africa, Horace Holley in America, Shu’a’u’llah ‘Ala’i in Persia, Leroy Ioas at the World Centre, Ugo Giachery, in Italy, Jalal Khazeh in Persia, Adelbert Muhlschlegel, and Hermann Grossmann in Germany, John Robarts, in Africa, Dhikru’llah Khadem in Persia, ‘Ali-Akbar Furutan; in Persia, Abu’l-Qasim Faizi, in Arabia, Hasan Balyuzi in England, Paul Haney in America, (Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum at the World Centre, ‘Ali-Muhammad Varqa in Persia, William Sears in Africa, Collis Featherstone in Australia, John Ferraby in England, Rahmatu’llah Muhajir in Indonesia and Enoch Olinga, in Africa. Among the men five held the title of “Doctor”, two of these being medical men; some of the others had university degrees but we five women, as far as I know, held no university degrees. I go into these details because this is the backdrop, these the leading actors, as the perilous drama of this most recent world religion played itself out successfully from November 4, 1957 to April 21, 1963.”

October 1961 Millie fell and “fractured her arm, requiring hospitalization. Despite her frailness, she returned to Haifa to assist the Hands of the Cause in regard to the first election of the Universal House of Justice. She had to be carried in a wheelchair to the meetings being held at Bahji, and was able to attend all but one (Francis 1993/2003).”

1 January 1962 At the age of 91, Millie Collins passed onto the Abhá Kingdom while being held in the arms of Ruhíyyih Khánum. Her body is buried in the Bahá’i cemetery at the foot of Mt. Carmel (Francis 1993/2003).”

References

Allen, Valera. December 1954. Haifa Impressions: Pilgrim Notes. (previously dated December 15-23, 1956; this may be incorrect)

Francis, Richard. 1993/2003. Amelia Collins: The Fulfilled Hope of ‘Abdu’l-Baha.

Harper, Barron. 1997. Lights of Fortitude. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-413-1

August 1935 “News of the Cause”, Bahá’í News (94): 1

Rabbani, R. (ed.) 1992. The Ministry of the Custodians 1957-1963. Bahá’í World Centre. xxiii. ISBN 0-85398-350-X.

Universal House of Justice. 1976. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1968-73. Wilmette, IL: Bahá’i Publishing Trust

Related Wikipedia articles

Amelia Collins
Baha’i Faith in Iceland
Western Pilgrim House

Social action

January 29, 2015

O ye that inhabit the heavens and the earth! There hath appeared what hath never previously appeared. Divine Springtime

This is the Day in which God’s most excellent favours have been poured out upon men, the Day in which His most mighty grace hath been infused into all created things. Gleanings Older site

Be united in counsel’, is Bahá’u’lláh’s appeal, ‘be one in thought. May each morn be better than its eve and each morrow richer than its yesterday. Man’s merit lieth in service and virtue and not in the pageantry of wealth and riches. Take heed that your words be purged from idle fancies and worldly desires and your deeds be cleansed from craftiness and suspicion.’LAWḤ-I-HIKMAT (Tablet of Wisdom)

‘Dissipate not the wealth of your precious lives in the pursuit of evil and corrupt affection, nor let your endeavours be spent in promoting your personal interest. Be generous in your days of plenty, and be patient in the hour of loss. Adversity is followed by success and rejoicings follow woe. Guard against idleness and sloth, and cling unto that which profiteth mankind, whether young or old, whether high or low. Beware lest ye sow tares of dissension among men or plant thorns of doubt in pure and radiant hearts.’LAWH-I-HIKMAT (Tablet of Wisdom)

26 November 2012 Social Action: a paper prepared by the Office of Social Action and Economic Development (OSED) at the Baha’i World Centre 26 November 2012

23 January 1995 The Prosperity of Humankind The Universal House of Justice. Bahá’í World Centre

16 September 1993 Bahá’í Social And Economic Development: Prospects for the Future

November 21-22, 1983 The Future of Canada: A Bahá’í Perspective A Brief presented to The Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects of Canada. The Canadian Bahá’í Community, through its National Spiritual Assembly Saskatoon.

“Over a century ago, Bahá’u’lláh warned that the accelerating course of social change on this planet would pass through periods of upheaval which He described as calamitous. Some of these He indicated were inescapable features of the process and others the consequence of failures of leadership on the part of
mankind’s major institutions. Most of these developments He saw as focused in the twentieth century, and He indicated that their climax, in the concluding years of the century, would entail disorder and suffering on a scale mankind had never before known. He warned, for example, that:

“Strange and astonishing things exist in the earth, but they are hidden from the minds and understanding of men. These things are capable of changing the whole atmosphere of the earth and their contamination would prove lethal.”

The time would come, Bahá’u’lláh said, when the misuse of these resources, together with unforeseen excesses produced by the prevailing materialism in the developed world, would call into question the very survival of civilization itself. He foresaw a period when “all eyes shall stare upward with terror,” when “the
very limbs of mankind shall quake. Gleanings From the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh”28

These dangers now represent the growing perceptions of the mass of mankind and have begun to generate widespread anxiety. They need no reiteration here from religion in order to draw attention to them, nor do we mention them for that purpose. On the contrary, it seems clear that one of the greatest handicaps to sound planning for the future is the paralysis of thought and courage which a contemplation of the threat to our survival produces. We hope it is not inappropriate, therefore, if we conclude our presentation to this Commission with a reference to the cause of the optimism with which our own community faces the future. Mankind has, we believe, the promise of God that, however frightening and painful the experience and however sweeping the social dislocations, the human race will pass successfully through the approaching, final stage in the process which is welding us into a single human family. It is in this context that we see the extraordinary promises made about our own nation being realized.”The Future of Canada: A Bahá’í Perspective

20 October 1983 The Universal House of Justice called for the incorporation of social and economic development processes into the regular pursuits of the community and announced the establishment of the Office of Social and Economic Development (OSED) at the Bahá’í World Centre to “promote and coordinate the activities of the friends” in field of development field at the grassroots of the community.

 

This radiant century

January 29, 2015

*This Radiant Century
*The Most Great Peace
*Perfection is endless

August Forel

January 29, 2015

*Tablet to August Forel New version

*Tablet to August Forel Old version

*Wikipedia article on Auguste Forel

*Wikipedia article on Tablet to August Forel